Bibliographic description:Larionov K.S., Kholkin E.G., Shtripling L.O. The elimination of emergency oil spills consequences in the Arctic zone of Russia using the reagent encapsulation technology. The Arctic: ecology and economy, 2017, no. 1(25), pp. 120-129. DOI:. (In Russian).
Arctic zone of the Russian Federation occupies a large area of the country and it differs from other regions with special climatic conditions. In winter air temperature can be lowered to 70°C below zero in the Arctic, and almost all the territory is located in the permafrost zone. The main potential sources of emergency conditions resulted in oil products used as finished raw materials, fuel and lubricants which will inevitably fall into the soil, are operated machinery and equipment for the hydrocarbons extraction and transportation. Weak self-recovery potential of soils in a short growing season and low temperatures involves the development and use of adapted to arctic conditions technologies for rapid overcoming of accidental oil spills consequences. We propose adapted to arctic conditions technology for rapid consequences elimination of accidents involving oil spills. Decontamination technology of soils polluted with oil products is based on the encapsulation of the pollutant (reagent encapsulation technology) with an alkaline reagent based on calcium. We used as a reagent powdered building quick lime; it is carbonate rock calcine or a mixture of this product with mineral additives (calcium oxide). The main advantage of the reagent encapsulation technology is decontamination efficiency of contaminated soils compared to traditional technologies of decontamination. One more important factor is low market value of lime as compared to other reagents, biological substances and solvents for the oil products extraction. We describe the basic steps of the reagent encapsulation technology in decontamination of soils contaminated with oil products. If we use exotherm process energy of chemical decontamination of soils contaminated with oil products, in combination with a forced feed of carbon dioxide to decontamination zone; then at the stage of coat formation from calcium carbonate on the surface of the pollutant it allows to complete decontamination of soils contaminated with oil products using the reagent encapsulation technology in extreme Arctic natural climatic conditions. We describe the principle of equipment operation allowing to carry out decontamination of soils contaminated with oil products using reagent encapsulation technology in Arctic climatic conditions. Encapsulated material obtained as a result of decontamination of soils contaminated with oil products, is resistant to natural and anthropogenic factors, such as moisture, temperature changes, acid rain and high pressure. We present the results of experimental studies for determining the optimal amount of the reagent required for the efficient completion of the decontamination of snow contaminated with motor oil, and soils contaminated with oil products depending on the degree of contamination and the type of pollutant. Our studies confirm that the reagent encapsulation technology showed good performance in severe climatic conditions and they are suitable for decontamination of soils and snow contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel and engine oil.
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