ZONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC BIOTÀJOURNAL: 2018, ¹4(32), p. 95-103
RUBRIC: Research activities in the Arctic
AUTHORS: Konovalov A.A., Ivanov S.N.
ORGANIZATIONS: Institute of the Problems of Northern Development, Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The article was received on: 16.10.2017
Keywords: Subarctic, climate, heat and dryness indices, biota, taxons, interconnections
Bibliographic description: Konovalov A.A., Ivanov S.N. Zonal distribution of the Russian Arctic biotà. The Arctic: ecology and economy, 2018, no. 4(32), pp. 95-103. DOI:10.25283/2223-4594-2018-4-95-103. (In Russian).
Quantitative distribution patterns and hierarchy of biotic indicators in the Russian Arctic and the methods of their mapping - cartographic and analytical ones are studied. Depending on the dryness index, the biosphere is divided into the northern one (cold, wet) and the southern (warm, dry). The boundary between them lies in the region where the dryness index is close to unity. The Arctic is completely in the cold part of the biosphere, characterized by increasing abundance and diversity of biota from north to south. In the landscape, geobotanical, permafrost and similar surveys of the area, the method of key sites is widely used. According to this method, detailed studies are carried out on individual sites typical for a given area, and the results, if necessary corrected, and then by analogy are extended to the entire territory. In our case, such a key “site” (area, region) can serve the north of Western Siberia, for which quantitative patterns of zonal and hierarchical distribution of climatic and biotic indicators were previously identified. These results were used to solve the above problem for the Arctic as a whole. Formulas are obtained for the relationship between climate and biotic indicators, which make it possible to determine the number of biotic taxa directly by climatic indicators, for example, heat and dryness indicators or by the average temperature of the warmest month. It is also established that the ratio of the number of ranks following the species to the abundance of the species does not depend on the climate zone. The stable linear connection of the number of taxa of flora and fauna, also invariable to climate, is reflected. By the proposed method, knowing the number of species of flora (or fauna), one can proceed to an estimate of the number of taxa of fauna (or flora) of higher ranks. To generalize the initial data and the results obtained, they are normalized. Using this technique, it was possible to correctly compare such diverse values as heat indicators and the number of different groups of floral and faunal biota constituents, and to obtain a unique solution for all this class of problems (instead of 5-6 formulas one proved to be sufficient). The final results of the work are the geobotanical and climatic maps of the Russian Arctic.
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